Types of Broadleaf Weeds


BUCKHORN PLANTAIN

Description: Buckhorn plantain forms a spreading or upright basal rosette of narrowly oval leaves that grow above a long, sturdy taproot with lateral branches. Leaves of buckhorn plantains are sometimes twisted and curled, narrowly oval, dark green, and up to 1 1/2″ wide and 8″ long. The tips are sharp and the veins are prominent.

Buckhorn plantain forms many small flowers that are tightly clustered at the ends of long stems.


BROADLEAF PLANTAIN

Description: Broadleaf plantain is a perennial weed that grows in areas of inconsistent irrigation. Cotyledons (seed leaves) are oblong with a base that abruptly narrows to a winged stalk. First and subsequent few leaves are football- shaped, usually over 1/4 inch (about 7 mm) to about 4/5 inch (about 20 mm) in length with a base that tapers abruptly into a stalk. Later leaves are smooth and oval and they narrow to a well-defined reddish petiole. Leaf blades are large, 3 to 6 inches (7.5 – 15 cm) long, with prominent veins. Roots are fibrous and shallow. Flowers are produced on stalks, 3 to 6 inches (7.5 – 15 cm) in length. Broadleaf plantain can be distinguished from buckhorn plantain by the broader leaf and shorter inflorescence stalks.


COMMON CHICKWEED

Description: Common chickweed develops prostrate, tender, freely branching stems that root at nodes; opposite, smooth, oval or elliptic leaves, lower leaves with long petioles, upper leaves sessile; shallow, fibrous and very frail roots; flowers are solitary or in small clusters at ends of stems, flower stalks fragile, petals white and seeds are produced in oval, 5-segmented capsule, seeds are circular, flattened and reddish-brown in color. Plants form a thick mat of succulent or tender vegetation in the early spring that is not eradicated by close mowing.

 


CARPETWEED

Description: Carpetweed is a summer annual with a short taproot. Seeds lie dormant over the winter and sprouts slowly in the spring. Once it sprouts it grows rapidly in the summer heat.

Prefers fertile, dry, sandy or gravelly soil in lawns and landscapes along walkways. It is commonly found in shaded areas in the lawn and may be a problem in spring seedings of new lawns.

 


BULL THISTLE

Description: Bull thistle is an annual or biennial, herbaceous plant that invades disturbed areas throughout the United States. The spiny, spreading, winged stems are up to 7 ft. (2.1 m) tall. Leaves are 3-12 in. (7.6-30.5 cm) long, lance-shaped and very hairy. Flowers develop, at the apex of the plant, from June to September. The purple flower heads are 1.5-2 in. (3.8-5.1 cm) in diameter and 1-2 in. (2.5-5.1 cm) long with narrow, spine-tipped bracts. Bull thistle can invade almost any type of disturbed area, such as forest clearcuts, riparian areas and pastures. Plants can form dense thickets, displacing other vegetation.


CHICORY

Description: Common chicory (Cichorium intybus) is a bushy perennial herb with blue, lavender, or occasionally white flowers. It grows as a wild plant on roadsides in its native Europe, and in North America and Australia, where it has become naturalized.

 

 


DANDELION

Description: The leaves are shiny and without hairs, the margin of each leaf cut into great jagged teeth, either upright or pointing somewhat backwards, and these teeth are themselves cut here and there into lesser teeth. The shining, purplish flower-stalks rise straight from the root, are leafless, smooth and hollow and bear single heads of flowers. On picking the flowers, a bitter, milky juice exudes from the broken edges of the stem, which is present throughout the plant, and which when it comes into contact with the hand, turns to a brown stain that is rather difficult to remove.

 


HENBIT

Description: Henbit, a member of the mint family, is an upright winter annual that blooms in the spring. The leaves are rounded on the end with rounded toothed edges that grow opposite one another on square stems Upper leaves lack petioles. Henbit can grow from 4 to 12 inches tall on weak stems. Although an upright plant, weak stems sprouting from the bottom may lay almost horizontal. The flowers of henbit are purple, tubular shaped and form in the whorls of the upper leaves.

 


WHITE CLOVER

Description: It is a herbaceous perennial plant. It is low growing, with heads of whitish flowers, often with a tinge of pink or cream that may come on with the aging of the plant. The heads are generally 1.5-2 cm wide, and are at the end of 7 cm peduncles or flower stalks. The leaves, which by themselves form the symbol known as shamrock, are trifoliolate, smooth, elliptic to egg-shaped and long-petioled. The stems function as stolons, so white clover often forms mats with the stems creeping as much as 18 cm a year, and rooting at the nodes.

 


WILD GARLIC

Description: A perennial from bulblets that emits a strong garlic or onion smell when crushed.  Primarily a weed of small grains, turfgrass and pastures.  Wild garlic imparts a garlic-like flavor and odor on dairy and beef products when grazed.  Additionally, small grains may become tainted with a garlic-like odor and/or flavor due to the presence of aerial bulblets at the time of harvest.  Wild garlic is found throughout the eastern and central United States.

 


WILD VIOLETS

Description: Wild violet is a low-growing clumping (simple) perennial with a dense, fibrous root system and heart-shaped leaves that often cup toward the petiole to form a funnel shape. Wild violet is often considered difficult-to-control due to its aggressive growth, waxy leaves and resistance to most common herbicides. Wild violet is most often found in shaded, fertile sites and prefers moist soils. Flowers are produced in mid-May are predictably violet colored, but can vary from deep-blue-violet to completely white. Plants spread by rhizomes and seed.